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I've read through this thread and I'm still confused about how B is correct. I chose A, but didn't feel good about any of the answers. I thought that B was incorrect because the author of passage A provided that these flat tax systems are inherently less complex, making tax avoidance significantly more difficult. They even reference the flat tax system in Estonia, where there are "no schedule of rates, no deductions." I ruled out B based on this information in the text, as I thought the simplistic nature of the flat tax system would get rid of the loopholes and special deductions referenced in B and would have an easy retort to the author of A had they responded with B. Why is B correct over A?
 Adam Tyson
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The focus of the question stem has the answer for you, gingerale. We aren't looking to respond to the entire argument presented by Author A, but only to the last argument she made, which basically boiled down to "high earners are paying the same as lower earners anyway, so progressive taxes don't really work and we should switch to a flaw tax." Author B's response could be what answer B says, that the problem isn't that the tax is progressive, but just that it has too many loopholes. Don't scrap the progressive tax and switch to a flat tax, but just fix the loopholes!

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