- Tue May 30, 2023 1:22 pm
The argument of the critics of the second form of multicultural education is laid out in the final paragraph of the passage.
In a nutshell, these critics argue that Western societies (which are based on certain scientific values and principles such as objectivity, logic, and being empirically verifiable) cannot really understand non-Western cultures (which are based on nonscientific values such as the subjective, the intuitive, and the mystical) unless the Western societies adopt the non-scientific values of those cultures being studied.
In other words, these critics are against using Western scientific ideas and values in studying non-Western cultures that do not share these values because they believe that using Western scientific ideas and methods actually distorts the understanding of these other cultures.
The important thing to note is that these critics aren't against the Western scientific methods/values in-and-of themselves, only against using the scientific methods to study cultures that don't use the scientific methods themselves. The key point for these critics is to use the values, beliefs, methods, etc. of the culture being studied to understand it.
The final sentence of the passage summarizes their view that the only way to understand a culture is to adopt the perspectives and methods of the culture (which are often nonscientific in non-Western cultures).
Answer A states that it is impossible to adopt the perspectives of other cultures without being a member of that culture. This directly attacks the critics' argument by basically saying that we cannot adopt the perspectives of other cultures, which is what the critics are saying must be done. In other words, according to Answer A, what the critics are recommending is impossible.
Answer B just states that many non-Western cultures share similar values. This has no effect on the critics' argument because what the critics care about is the differences between Western and non-Western cultures, not the similarities or difference among non-Western cultures.
Answer C discusses how some non-Western societies use their own value system when studying other cultures. This has no effect on the critics' argument. Just because non-Western societies study other cultures in this way does not mean that it is correct.
Answer D is consistent with the critics' argument because it involves members of Western societies understanding of their culture within their culture's scientific perspective.
Answer E connects genuine understanding of another culture to appreciation of that culture, but does not address whether adopting the perspectives of the other culture are necessary to understanding it, which the key to the critics' argument.