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Nevertheless, the concentration of solutes in extracellular fluid may at times become elevated or reduced by more than the allowed tolerances of one or two percent. It is then that complementary physiological and behavioral responses come into play to restore plasma osmolality to normal.Those deviations beyond the normal range are the "major changes" referred to in answer D, and that is what the passage is ultimately about. The rest of the passage talks about how the body responds by either retaining or releasing vasopressin, a peptid hormone, which either inhibits or causes thirst, among other reactions, to bring the body back to homeostasis.
Thesis statement: Reproduction and fluid balance are governed by the body using similar mechanisms.But if you were to back-plug D, you would get something like this:
Body paragraph I: First example of how thirst and reproduction are similarly governed
Body II: Example 2 of how they are similarly governed
Conclusion: they are similar
Thesis statement: Hormones regulate the body using both physiological and behavioral responses.We can see that the second example is basically what is going on in the paragraph, with a heavy dose of explanatory text in the first paragraph. The argument really gets going at line 34 (and was summarized in lines 6-9). The appearance of both behavioral and physiological effects of hormone regulation is the key to this passage. It is wholly absent in E.
Body I: Physiological changes to hormone response to changes in osmality
Body II: Behavioral changes to hormone response to changes in osmality
Conclusion: these two changes complement one another