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The correct answer choice is (E)
The question asks us to find a sentence that logically completes the last paragraph, given the passage's argument. This directs us to the last sentence of the text. The passage ends fairly abruptly, by listing Abrams's detailed recommendations for the specific structure that sociologists should take to account for structuring (his term for the sociological two-way street between individuals and society). Given that, we would expect a logical completion of the paragraph to be something that ties together the structure recommended by the last sentence and the overall point of the passage regarding structuralism. Before coming down to the answer choices, we want to Pre-Phrase an answer choice. A solid Pre-Phrase would look something like: "This fourfold structure would best allow historical sociologists to describe the bilateral relationship between individuals and society."
With that, we take a look at the answer choices.
Answer Choice (A). (A) does attempt to take the fourfold structure suggested by the passage's end and tie it in with the general point of the rest of the passage. This is a good thing; however, a quick glance at the other answer choices reveal that they all do this, so it's hardy a point in favor of (A). (A) is incorrect as it's too strong ("only if", "with any certainty"), and it misses the main point of the passage by failing to mention the bilateral relationship between society and individuals. (A)t is focused on the relationship working only one way - individuals influencing history - while the passage stresses that the relationship is a two-way street.
Answer Choice (B). (B) completely misstates Abrams's point - Abrams does not think that there is little connection between history and individual agency; the passage is largely spent discussing Abrams's belief about how there is a connection (and that the connection goes both ways).
Answer Choice (C). (C) is too strong. The first paragraph does suggest that Abrams views the structuring as a necessary consideration for the field of historical sociology, but nowhere does the passage suggest that the discipline will otherwise be "treated as little more than an interesting but ultimately indefensible adjunct to history and sociology".
Answer Choice (D). (D) doesn't tie back to the main point of the passage (i.e. the two-way relationship between individuals and society) like we wanted. Instead, it goes off on a point about shedding light on "issues that traditional sociologists have chosen to ignore". The language of "shedding light" and "chosen to ignore" are both a bit strong; there's nothing in the passage that specifically suggests those things.
Answer Choice (E). This is the correct answer choice. It matches our Pre-Phrase pretty well, and ties together the fourfold structure from the end of the passage with the general point of the passage about the two-way relationship between individuals and society.