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(See the complete passage discussion here: lsat/viewtopic.php?t=50)
The correct answer choice is (A)
The question stem asks which answer choice gives the most strength to the view that the LHB was limited to the Earth and Moon, consistent with the third theory of LHB, so it would include a relatively brief event that was confined to the Earth-Moon system. The problem with this theory is the Mars rock. How would a scientist explain the rock from Mars if LHB was confined to the Earth-Moon system? Any other evidence of LHB outside the Earth-Moon system would tend to weaken the third theory. Conversely, lack (or disproof) of such evidence would strengthen the theory of confinement to the Earth-Moon system.
Answer choice (A): This is the correct answer choice. If further testing shows that it is unlikely that Mars experienced any increase in projectile intensity of during the LHB (about 4 billion years ago), this would tend to weaken the assertion that Mars was involved, which makes it more likely that the effects of the LHB were not felt beyond the Earth and Moon.
Answer choice (B): Since there doesn’t appear to be much issue with the notion that there was such a bombardment that included both Earth and the Moon, such a discovery would probably do little to alter current hypotheses, and certainly wouldn’t help to disprove any possibility of other planetary bodies being affected by the LHB, so this answer choice is incorrect.
Answer choice (C): As with answer choice (B), this might strengthen the conclusions about the involvement of the Earth and the Moon, but wouldn’t help to disprove the inclusion of other planetary bodies in the phenomenon.
Answer choice (D): Although the Mars rock provides evidence for the assertion that Mars was involved with the LHB, the author cautions that further evidence needs to be gathered before conclusions can be drawn. The discovery of an alternate explanation for the origin of the Mars rock might tend to strengthen a theory that states that LHB is exclusive to the Earth-Moon system, but it would not serve to disprove other theories that are not restricted to the Earth-Moon system, so this answer choice is incorrect.
Answer choice (E): While this evidence would help to explain what was really represented by the LHB (the conclusion of billions of years of heavy bombardment), it would not support the view that the LHB was confined to the Earth and the Moon, so this answer choice is incorrect.