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 Basia W
  • Posts: 108
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#22472
Good evening,

I chose B for 15 and am not entirely sure how C is correct.

thank you for your time,

very best,

Basia
 Lucas Moreau
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#22473
Hello, Basia,

B may be true but would not undermine the author's conclusion in the last sentence - which is both that kin recognition among the tiger salamanders preserves their own lives and is not meant to aid the survival of relatives and the species.

C is correct, because it would undermine the second part of the author's conclusion by showing that tiger salamanders practice kin recognition both to preserve their own lives and to benefit relatives.

Hope that helps,
Lucas Moreau
 Basia W
  • Posts: 108
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#22474
Thank you!
 gweatherall
  • Posts: 39
  • Joined: Jun 29, 2017
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#39453
I actually chose E for this one, and I am bothered that E is incorrect. My reasoning was as follows: if cannabalistic tiger salamanders are immune to diseases that they would otherwise contract when eating their relatives, then wouldn't that negate the idea that tiger salamanders avoiding eating their relatives was merely for self preservation? Surely if they were immune to the diseases, they wouldn't need to avoid eating their relatives?

I also didn't think that C was correct, because avoiding inbreeding is surely just another basic evolutionary theory reason for kin recognition. Unless we're making a distinction between direct self-preservation and "gene preservation"/protection offspring.

Thanks!
 nicholaspavic
PowerScore Staff
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#39600
Hi gweatherall,

Great question. And recall that last paragraph to compare to Answer Option (E). Do you know whether the disease caused by that bacterium is one that the cannibalistic salamander is immune to? That's the undue inference that they are trying to get you to make in (E). You don't know what the LSAC means by "certain diseases."

Remember the conclusion that Lucas pointed out. That that kin recognition among the tiger salamanders preserves their own lives and is not meant to aid the survival of relatives and the species.

Remember also that this is a weakening quetion. Answer (C) directly negates that second part of the conclusion by the author, that its not about the relatives' survival. That's why it is correct here.

Thanks for the great question!
 gweatherall
  • Posts: 39
  • Joined: Jun 29, 2017
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#39605
Thanks for your helpful answer, Nicholas! I'm frustrated with myself for making that undue inference, but it's a good reminder not to do it on test day.

The second half of that, re. benefiting relatives vs. oneself, still bugs me a little because I'm used to equating natural selection and self-selection with gene propagation- in other words, to protect one's children is to protect oneself. BUT- I think that might be an example of bringing in dangerous outside knowledge.
 ArizonaRobin
  • Posts: 13
  • Joined: Aug 17, 2019
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#88626
I am frustrated with the explanation given above as C is actually an opposite answer that SUPPORTS the conclusion. Your explanation was because it only supports one part of the conclusion it actually weakens it, but that doesn't make sense to me at all. If it supports it at all it strengthens it. In fact, the way that it supports the first part of the conclusion infers the remaining part of the conclusion as well, that the purpose was ONLY for individual preservation and not for that of the relatives. I understand that none of the other answers work well, which is why I struggled with this one, but supporting the conclusion even in part does not logically weaken it.

Perhaps someone can approach this from a different angle so that it makes more sense to me.
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 atierney
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#88955
Hi Arizonarobbin,

I actually don't think answer choice C supports the conclusion at all. Let's examine closely what it states. "Kin recognition helps tiger salamanders avoid inbreeding that may be life-threatening to their offspring."

So, this is a little tricky, as there is the word "that," the pronoun, which, here, is referring to the inbreeding and not kin recognition, the subject of the sentence. This inbreeding is the "that" (and not, as you might have surmised, the kin recognition) which is life-threatening to the offspring. In other words, the kin recognition helps tiger salamanders from making sweet romance with their cousins, which as pleasant (and innocuous, relatively speaking) as it may be for them (the parent tiger salamanders), probably doesn't produce offspring that will win best in show (or best in swim!) at any tiger salamander contest anytime soon (I love those shows).

So the point is, answer choice C posits a situation in which the kin recognition helps only the offspring, which is the exact opposite of what is stated in the last lines of the passage: "...simply as a means by which an organism preserves its own life, not as a means to aid in relatives’ survival." This is why it most certainly does weaken the conclusion found in said last lines.

Let me know if you have further questions.

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