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Flaw in the Reasoning. The correct answer choice is (E)
The argument is that since extinction is a natural process, human use of technology cannot have caused any extinctions that would not have been caused by natural processes, anyway.
The argument unjustifiably assumes that in the absence of technology as a cause would have occurred anyway with natural processes as a cause. The argument treats the species that have become extinct in modern times as, uniformly, species whose time had come.
You are asked to identify a reasoning error, so you should focus on the fact that it is entirely plausible that even if many of the species would have naturally become extinct, human use of technology has exacerbated the problem.
Answer choice (A): The author acquiesces that human technology has damaged the environment, but simply argues that the supposedly resultant extinctions would have occurred anyway. This choice is wrong.
Answer choice (B): The author's flaw is based on assuming that extinctions and threats of extinctions are always no different from that caused by natural processes. The correct choice would have to address that causal source, not simply discuss the effects, so this choice is incorrect.
Answer choice (C): The argument is based on the general premise that species, over time, have an extinction rate of over 50%. It is not relevant whether the author fails to consider a few undiscovered species, because it is implausible that such discoveries would affect that general premise. Even if such discoveries did drastically affect the 50% rate, such discoveries would probably not affect the rate with respect to the species in which the author is most likely interested.
Answer choice (D): The author does not need to cite specific scientists who do not support the theory that over half of all species that have existed have become extinct. The description of the scientific estimate in the first sentence implies strongly that there is uniform scientific consensus, so this choice is not even relevant to the actual situation, and thus is incorrect.
Answer choice (E): This is the correct answer choice. The author asserts that the species that have become extinct in modern times would have become extinct in modern times even without the adverse effects of modern technology, but the author provides absolutely no reason to believe his assertions.