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#23345
Complete Question Explanation

Parallel Flaw. The correct answer choice is (A)

The stimulus of this problem contains a flawed reasoning.
  • 1. ..... Handgun crimes are more likely to result in fatalities

    2. ..... Most handgun crimes do not result in fatalities
Thus, there is no need to distinctly address handgun crimes

This argument is invalid because even if most handgun crimes do not result in fatalities, it does not change the fact that handgun crimes are still more likely to result in fatalities, and thus the conclusion that there is no need to distinctly address handgun crimes does not follow.

For example, if 49% of handgun crimes result in fatalities, while 1% of other crimes result in fatalities, then there might be a need to distinctly address handgun crimes, even though most (over 50%) handgun crimes do not result in fatalities.

Again, we are asked to look for the answer choice that parallels this reasoning.

Answer choice (A): This is the correct answer choice.
  • 1. ..... Overweight people are more likely to develop heart disease

    2. ..... Over half of all overweight people do not develop heart disease
Thus, there is no need to emphasize heart disease to overweight people

Again, this argument is flawed because if 49% of overweight people develop heart disease and 1% of non-overweight people do, then there might be a need to emphasize heart disease to overweight people, even though most (over 50%) overweight people do not develop heart disease. This answer choice parallels the reasoning of the stimulus exactly, thus it is the correct answer.

Answer choice (B): This answer is incorrect because the premises and conclusion simply do not match those of the conclusion. For example, the first premise of the argument is not a comparison like that of the stimulus (handgun crimes more likely than other crimes...). Meanwhile, the conclusion also does not parallel properly: while the conclusion of the stimulus states that "there is no need to...", the conclusion of this answer choice states that "people are better off not following...", which is different.

Answer choice (C): The premises of this argument do not match those of the stimulus. Even though the reasoning of this answer is fairly similar to the stimulus, the first premise of the stimulus does not invoke a comparison as that of the stimulus. The first premise of the stimulus states that "handgun crimes are more likely than other crimes to...", while the first premise of this answer choice only states that "most physicians recommend a balanced diet". Moreover, the second premise of this answer choice only says "many people...", while the second premise of the stimulus states that "the majority of handgun crimes...". Finally, while the conclusion of the stimulus states that "there is no need (at all) to enact laws...", the conclusion of this answer choice merely states that "there is no need for everyone to...". Thus this is not the correct answer.

Answer choice (D): This conclusion does not parallel that of the stimulus. The conclusion of this answer choice states that "people... need to spend more", and does not match the "... no need..." idea from the stimulus' conclusion.

Answer choice (E): This conclusion does not parallel the conclusion of the stimulus. The conclusion states "people... should undergo...". Again, it does not parallel the "there is no need..." conclusion of the stimulus.
 yournoona
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  • Joined: Mar 13, 2020
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#74552
Hello,
Although i got this answer right as A, i have problem as to why C is not the answer

Will the part 'Majority' differ from the 'many' given in the argument in the option C. Don't they both stand for the same thing as almost most of the people?
Also it has a very similar argument structure to the stimuli.
Is the 'more likely' given in the stimulus different from the most given in the argument. How is not a resemblance of the argument given in the stimulus?
Thanks
 Jeremy Press
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#74560
Hi yournoona,

Thanks for your question! You've raised a couple of important issues.

First, on the LSAT, "majority" means something different than "many." "Majority" has a definite meaning of "more than half" (i.e., greater than 50%). "Many" has an indefinite meaning. It certainly means more than one, but beyond that, we don't really know how far it goes. I always tell people even the numbers 5 or 10 could be "many," so we cannot assume that "many" means "more than half" of whatever it is we're discussing. So, as the original post notes, that it one good reason that answer choice C does not provide a good reasoning match for the argument in the stimulus.

The answer to the second question you've asked is yes: "more likely" means something different than "most." Imagine this statement: "history majors are more likely to go to law school than chemistry majors." What does that mean? It means that the percentage of history majors who go to law school is higher than the percentage of chemistry majors who go to law school. But that statement would be true even if only 10% of history majors went to law school, and 1% of chemistry majors went to law school.

The statement "Most history majors go to law school" means that definitely more than 50% of history majors go to law school.

What the example illustrates is that the logical implications of the phrase "more likely" and the term "most" can be very different. This is another good reason why answer choice C is not a reasoning match for the argument in the stimulus.

I hope this helps!

Jeremy

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