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Flaw in the Reasoning. The correct answer choice is (D)
In this stimulus argument, the author is using the beliefs of two time periods as premises to establish the truth of her conclusion. The argument is that since people today and people in the past have all believed that yawning is most powerfully triggered by other people yawning, that opinion must be fact. The problem is, regardless of how many time periods are represented, opinions cannot be used to establish something as fact.
Answer Choice (A) The conclusion here is not merely a restatement of the premises. Instead, it is assertion that since all of these people through different eras have believed something, it must be true.
Answer Choice (B) While the issue of why people yawn likely is outside most historians' area of expertise, it is not the historians making the claim about yawning. Instead, the historians are stating what people in the past have believed regarding yawning. In no way are they expressing their own personal beliefs.
Answer Choice (C) The argument is making its claims based on opinion, not upon a limited number of atypical cases.
Answer Choice (D): This is the correct answer choice. What exactly causes yawns is a factual issue that would probably be best established through scientific studies. The fact that people throughout the years have believed something does not automatically make that belief true.
Answer Choice (E) The stimulus argument does not take for granted that yawns have no cause other than seeing somebody else yawn. The argument is stating that seeing somebody else yawn is the most irresistible cause of yawning, not the only cause.