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Flaw in the Reasoning. The correct answer choice is (D)
Here we are told initially that Sara probably has the same illness as Michael does. Based on this premise, the information that Michael does not have streptococcal infection is treated as absolute proof that Sara does not have streptococcal infection. Therefore the answer choice will have something to do with the problem of using probability in an effort to prove something as fact.
Answer Choice (A) The argument does not presuppose that Sara does not have streptococcal infection; it simply uses flawed reasoning to get to that conclusion.
Answer Choice (B) There is no issue of causal reasoning here. The issue is not what caused Sara to get an illness, it is an issue of determining exactly what illness she has.
Answer Choice (C) The stimulus is not concerned with how severe Sara's case of streptococcal infection may or may not be. It is only concerned with whether or not she has the illness.
Answer Choice (D): This is the correct answer choice. Based on the fact that Sara and Michael probably have the same disease, we can say that Sara probably does not have streptococcal infection based upon the fact that Michael does not have it. We cannot, however, establish that claim as fact based upon the information provided.
Answer Choice (E) There are no general claims here and no respective groups that the stimulus reasoning is intending to represent. Instead, a very specific claim is being made about a very specific person — that Sara does not have streptococcal infection.