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Complete Question Explanation

Method of Reasoning. The correct answer choice is (A)
Lambert argues that the proposal to raise taxes to support mass transit is unfair, since people who do not use the mass transit will be thereby forced to pay for something which they do not use.

Keziah retorts that Lambert misunderstands the situation, because the government has always spent more per user on highway (private car) transit than on mass transit, and the new proposal will simply make the situation more fair.

It is important that you note that Keziah points out that the government currently spends more per user on highway transit, because that suggests a strong probability that the actual situation is that currently the government unfairly forces mass-transit users to pay for highway transit that they do not use. If Lambert is to hold to his principle that people ought not have to pay for what they do not use, he should be more favorable toward the support of mass transit, because the new gasoline tax might simply force highway users to return some of the money that they are possibly receiving from mass-transit users, thus reducing the amount of unfair largess possibly given to private vehicle operators at the expense of mass-transit customers.

You should focus on the way that Keziah brings in information that might cause Lambert, if he holds to his supposed principle, to view the proposal more favorably.

Answer choice (A): This is the correct answer choice. Keziah expands the context to include, by implication, what mass-transit users might spend on highways, which makes the proposal more acceptable under the principle that people should not have to pay for what they do not use.

Answer choice (B) Actually, Keziah buys into the concept that the situation is win-lose, because his argument is based on making the situation more equitable, not better for all, and because he implies that the highway users are unfairly profiting from mass-transit users.

Answer choice (C) Since Keziah's argument is based on equity, it makes no sense to believe that Keziah challenges fairness as an appropriate consideration.

Answer choice (D) Keziah does not assert that the tax will not increase costs to drivers; in fact, he implies the tax will require them to pay more of their fair share of the cost of maintaining highways.

Answer choice (E) Keziah clearly argues the point, and does not evade the issue, so this choice is wrong. Keziah seeks to inform Lambert, not to ignore him.
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I have a couple questions about the language used in some of the incorrect answer choices. First, what does "principle" mean in the context of the LSAT? On a similar note, what is a presupposition describing?

 Francis O'Rourke
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Hi Toby,

Check out the following two posts and let us know if you still have any questions about these terms:

Principles, by definition, are broad, abstract statements that are typically conditional in nature
Principle Questions
Principle questions are not a question type of their own - they are an overlay, if you will, on many other question types. Principles are simply rules, sometimes narrow and sometimes broad, often conditional and opinion-based ("if you are in Group X then you should do Z") but not always.
A presupposition is a fact taken as true without support and then used in support of a conclusion.
Presupposition Flaw in the Reasoning
Basically what happens is that in stating a conclusion, the author uses as support for that conclusion the exact same idea. In other words, it's just a restatement.... To spot it just watch for a conclusion that has the exact same idea given as its premise.
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Thank you for such a thorough response, Francis!

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