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Assumption-SN. The correct answer choice is (D)
The premises in the stimulus establish the following logical relationship: "If there are holidays or vacation, John works less than five days in a week. If neither holidays nor vacation are present, John works five days per week." We are told that last week there were neither holidays nor vacation. The obvious conclusion is that John worked five days last week. We know that Friday he worked as a blacksmith. But how can we be sure that his other days of work were Monday through Thursday? Why are we so quick to dismiss the possibility that he worked on Saturday or Sunday? This is the missing assumption.
Answer choice (A): Apply the Assumption Negation test. Even if John sometimes takes a vacation of more than one week in length, it doesn't matter for the argument: we know that John had no vacation last week, so any consideration of vacation is irrelevant.
Answer choice (B): The argument is not really concerned with the amount of time that John worked on individual days. The argument is only making a claim about the identity of the individual days when John indeed worked.
Answer choice (C): Like choice (A), this statement is irrelevant. We know that neither vacation nor holiday occurred last week, so we have no reason to care about vacation or holiday.
Answer choice (D): This is the correct answer choice. Without the statement in this answer choice, it becomes very possible that John worked on days besides Monday through Thursday.
Answer choice (E): Apply the Assumption Negation test: What if there were some (at least one) days last week in which John worked both jobs? Would this destroy the author's argument? No: it is conceivable that John could have worked his insurance job on Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday; and that John worked the blacksmith job on Thursday and Friday. This story is perfectly consistent with the premises of the stimulus.