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 akalsi
  • Posts: 34
  • Joined: Aug 25, 2014
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#16467
I had originally chosen A as the correct answer, but I think that may have been because I had done my conditional diagram wrong.

I had diagrammed this as:

Understand the architecture of personal computers :arrow: Computer Scientist
Understand the architecture of personal computers :arrow: Appreciate the advances in technology made in last decade

Therefore: Appreciate these advances :arrow: computer scientist

From here I chosen answer choice A because I thought that, based on my diagram, there wasn't a relationship indicated between Computer Scientists and those that appreciate the advances in technology made in the last decade.

Can someone explain how the phrase "only those who" operates in this sort of situation, I keep thinking that this implies a sufficient condition, and perhaps that's probably the reason why I got this answer wrong.

Thanks in advance,
-Anoop
 BethRibet
PowerScore Staff
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  • Posts: 199
  • Joined: Oct 17, 2012
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#16528
Hi Anoop,

Thanks for the question. The word only modifies necessary conditions. Your first diagram was correct.

Your second is reversed and should have read:

Appreciate advances in technology --> understand architecture of PCs

You could then chain these to read:

Appreciate advances --> understand architecture --> computer scientist.

The conclusion is an example of mistaken reversal, as it would diagram as:

Computer scientist --> appreciate advances.

It treats the necessary condition (computer scientist) as if it is a sufficient condition.

B pinpoints this error, as not all computer scientists do in fact have to appreciate advances. It's the other way -- all those who appreciate advances must be computer scientists. But some computer scientists could be indifferent, for instance.

Hope this helps!
Beth
 caroline222
  • Posts: 18
  • Joined: Jan 07, 2021
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#83031
I was wondering if the wording was changed from "only" to "the only" in the conclusion sentence, if the diagram would change?

"only those who appreciate these advances are computer scientists"
computer scientists --> appreciate advances

"the only people who appreciate these advances are computer scientists"
It seems like this would change to: appreciate advances --> computer scientists
 Adam Tyson
PowerScore Staff
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#83077
Absolutely correct, Caroline! If that had been the conclusion there would have been no flaw in the argument. What a difference one little word like "the" can make, right?
 caroline222
  • Posts: 18
  • Joined: Jan 07, 2021
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#83088
Adam Tyson wrote: Sat Jan 09, 2021 12:03 am Absolutely correct, Caroline! If that had been the conclusion there would have been no flaw in the argument. What a difference one little word like "the" can make, right?
I think I got confused when I diagrammed this question originally and I might have thought that the sentence was saying "the only" instead of "only." Is the best way to avoid this to just memorize that "only" appears before a necessary condition and "the only" appears before the sufficient condition??
 Adam Tyson
PowerScore Staff
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#83090
That would certainly help, yes. More generally, though, is that careful reading is crucial. Every word matters, so read carefully!
User avatar
 simonsap
  • Posts: 33
  • Joined: Jun 14, 2021
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#87938
premises: Appreciate advances --- > Understand Architecture ---> Computer Scientists
cc: Computer Scientists --> Appreciate advances

problem? cc says all computer scientists appreciate advances. False.
To appreciate the advances, you must be a computer scientist. But if you're a computer scientist, you don't necessarily have to appreciate the advances; ergo, some scientists may not appreciate the advances.

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