- Thu Oct 03, 2013 8:58 am
You are absolutely right that in a Weaken question, your Prephrase is that the correct answer will undermine the conclusion, while the incorrect answers either will have no effect on the conclusion or could support it.
As you state in your question, the conclusion is that heart disease can result from psychological factors, a causal relationship. In support of this causal relationship, the premises state that: (1) people who are easily angered are significantly more likely to have permanently high blood pressure than are people who have more tranquil personalities; and (2) those with permanently high blood pressure are especially likely to have heart disease.
Your Prephrase is that the argument is flawed because it presents evidence of a series of correlations, but the conclusion infers causation from them.
Answer choice (E) is not merely a restatement of the stimulus. A closer reading of the wording of that choice will show you that it talks about physiological factors, and not psychological factors. So, if the physiological factors that cause permanently high blood pressure also generally make people quick to anger, then this answer choice provides an alternate cause that leads to both high blood pressure and quickness to anger.
Answer choice (D) also says something different than you indicated in your question. Answer choice (D) states that people who discover that they have heart disease tend to become more easily frustrated, not angered, by small difficulties.
First, this answer choice does not imply a chronological relationship between finding they have heart disease and tending to be more easily frustrated. So, it may be the case that they were always more likely to be more easily frustrated, not just after they learned they had heart disease. Second, "frustrated" and "angered" are very different terms, and since they are not merely synonymous, you should avoid switching them in and out the causal relationship from the stimulus.
Please let me know if I can help further. From this question, it appears your process is sound, but you might be rushing a bit through the answer choices. Properly identifying the logical gap in the stimulus does no good if you rush through the answer choices. Slowing down a bit to focus better on the actual language being used, rather than getting the gist of the answer choice, should help improve your accuracy.