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Flaw in the Reasoning. The correct answer choice is (E)
The author of this stimulus discusses N5, a non-caloric fat substitute. The conclusion is presented
in the second sentence of the paragraph: “…N5 is of no use to such people.” The author bases this
conclusion on a single premise: N5 users, who continued to feel hungrier than they would have if
they had they been eating real fat, ended up making up all of the calories saved by eating more.
There is a disconnect in this stimulus that we might notice: N5 is a fat substitute. The subjects
made up for the calories they saved by eating more. As is common with regard to logical reasoning
passages, the test makers hope that we will fail to note this subtle but important distinction.
The question stem which follows the stimulus in this case is, not surprisingly, a Flaw in the
Reasoning question, so the correct answer choice will likely point out the difference between
reduction of fat intake and reduction of total caloric intake.
Answer choice (A): The stimulus deals with people who use N5, so the existence of foods that
cannot include N5 has no bearing on the author’s argument, which deals with the usefulness of N5
for those who use it.
Answer choice (B): Since the important inquiry here deals with the usefulness of N5 for those who
use it as a fat substitute, the existence or absence of mild side effects does not come into play (that is,
N5 might still be useful even if its use brings mild side effects).
Answer choice (C): This answer choice provides us with a less straightforward version of the
following: “some who use N5 don’t care about caloric intake.” This choice fails to point out the
important distinction between fat intake and caloric intake, and, further, plays no role in the author’s
argument about the usefulness of N5 as a fat substitute.
Answer choice (D): Even if people who are aware of the fat substitute’s benefits use more foods that
include N5, this fails to point out a vulnerability in the author’s argument that N5 is of no use as a fat
substitute, so this answer choice cannot be correct.
Answer choice (E): This is the correct answer choice, and the one which points to the vital
distinction between fat intake and caloric intake. If this answer choice is true, then the author’s
conclusion fails, because N5 appears to have value as a fat reducer even if users maintain caloric