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These two passages deal with the development of music in the evolution of humans; Passage A compares the development of music with the development of language, showing that the two are very similar but ultimately concluding that language is crucially important and that music is of little evolutionary value. The author of Passage B argues that, despite the opinion of Charles Darwin to the contrary, music is an important component of fostering the emotional bonds between mother and child, which are essential to humans' evolutionary success.
Paragraph One: In the opening paragraph, the author raises the question of whether music
and language developed together or separately, and describes ways the two
are similar to each other.
Paragraph Two: The author shares information about studies that indicate that language and
music are part of a single neurological system, and claims that the two have
more similarities than differences. She draws an analogy to different programs
broadcast on the same radio. She then notes a key distinction between the two,
noting that most people cannot compose music well while they can generally
Paragraph Three: The author expresses the viewpoint that music and language evolved
together rather than separately, and then notes that because language
skills and use are more prominent in modern humans than are musical
skills and performance, language must have been more important to
human evolution than music, and that music likely had little if any
Paragraph One: The passage begins with a quote from Darwin suggesting that music has
no evolutionary value, a position with which the author then strongly
disagrees, claiming that music is "indispensable" and has a clear
evolutionary basis and value.
Paragraph Two: Here the author shares some data gleaned from studies that show how
mothers and infants interact using music-like behaviors that involve
factors such as rhythm, tone, and pitch.
Paragraph Three: The author describes how these behaviors convey an evolutionary
advantage, related to increased brain size, earlier birth, and the
general helplessness of human infants. Because of these factors, the author
believes that the emotional bonds formed by musical interactions are
essential to ensure that mothers care for and protect their babies.
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