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Must Be True—FL. The correct answer choice is (E)
This stimulus contains facts involving the use of Formal Logic. The first statement is that most of the university’s Spanish 101 students last semester attended every class session. We can diagram this statement as:
- StudentSpanish 101 attended every class session
- Studentlower than B- attended every class session
- attend every class session Studentlower than B-
We can connect the first, “most” relationship to the contrapositive of the second relationship across the common term “attend every class session”:
- StudentSpanish 101 attended every class session Studentlower than B-
The question stem identifies this as a Must Be True question. Our prephrase is the inference made above, that most students who took Spanish 101 at the university last semester received a B- grade or higher.
Answer choice (A): Since the stimulus did not tell us about students who received a grade of A- or higher, we cannot make this inference.
Answer choice (B): This answer choice contains a reversal of what we know from the stimulus. We know that every student who received a grade lower than a B minus missed at least one class session, but we cannot simply reverse that statement to say that most people who missed at least one class session received a grade lower than a B minus. At most, we can say that some people who missed at least one class session received a grade lower than a B minus.
Answer choice (C): This is a tricky answer choice, because it is very close to our actual prephrase. However, this answer choice is incorrect because it leaves out the possibility of those students receiving a B minus, stating that most of the students received a grade “higher than B minus.”
Answer choice (D): The only rule we have that associates grades with attendance is the second rule, which told us about students who received a grade lower than a B minus. We cannot infer anything about the attendance of those students who received a grade of B minus or higher.
Answer choice (E): This is the correct answer choice, and it restates our prephrase, that most of the Spanish 101 students received a grade of B minus or higher.