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Flaw in the Reasoning. The correct answer choice is (A).
A conditional argument made by some anthropologists is presented: if early humans had not developed the ability to survive in diverse environments, then the human species would not have survived through prehistoric times. Simplifying that argument, we can use "ASDE" is shorthand for the ability of early humans to survive in diverse environments, and "HS" for the human species survives. The diagram for the claim made by the anthropologists, then, is:
The author then argues that those anthropologists must be mistaken, on the grounds that there were other early human-like people who did have that ability to survive but who went extinct. The author, then, is saying that the conditional argument is incorrect because some groups that did not meet the Sufficient Condition nevertheless met the Necessary Condition. Of course, this is not a problem, because a Necessary Condition can happen whether a Sufficient Condition does or does not. The author has gotten confused, treating the Sufficient Condition as if the anthropologists thought it was Necessary and vice versa.
As this is a Flaw question, we need only find the answer that correctly describes a flaw in conditional reasoning, a Mistaken Negation or Mistaken Reversal.
Answer choice (A): This is the correct answer choice. This answer describes the conditional flaw, mistaking a necessary condition for a sufficient one. As is typical with conditional flaws, the answer uses the language of conditionality, including words like sufficient, required, and condition.
Answer choice (B): This answer sounds like a mix of causal reasoning and an overgeneralization, neither of which describes the conditional nature of the problem.
Answer choice (C): Another overgeneralization answer, which was not the problem in the argument.
Answer choice (D): Like answer B, this one sounds like it has some causal elements to it, talking about lowering the chances of survival. But the flaw is purely conditional, and this answer does not describe that.
Answer choice (E): Once more we have an answer choice that is causal, while the argument, and the flaw, are conditional. Do not be fooled by causal answers to conditional flaws, or by conditional answers to causal flaws. These are common traps to avoid.