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 James Finch
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Hi Oneshot,

Yes, your diagram is correct.

As noted, the first couple of sentences in the stimulus give us the conditional:

Read Alphabetic Language (RAL) :arrow: Phonemic Awareness (PA) + Symbolic Representation of Sounds (SR). Then we're given a group, whole-language method learners (WL), which emphasizes phonemic awareness; some of of the WL students learn to read alphabetic languages. So as you note, we can diagram out:

WL :some: RAL :arrow: PA + SR

Meaning that at least some (ie not none) WL students learn both the phonemic awareness emphasized by whole language awareness and the symbolic representation of sounds by letters. Answer choice (D) describes this inference, albeit in an awkward double negative way ("doesn't prevent").

Good job!
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After reading the explanations I am still unclear about why answer choice B is wrong. Is it wrong because It is saying that only one of the necessary conditions are met because you need to know how sounds are represented and the knowledge that spoken language can be broken into specific sounds to met the requirement for learning a alphabetic language?
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Hi mrdmass725!

It's not that only one necessary condition is met, because, really, it's not the necessary conditions that have to be met. Only meeting sufficient conditions allows us to make further inferences. Even if both necessary conditions were met, that still wouldn't prove that the sufficient condition must be true.

You can diagram the stimulus this way:

Read an alphabetic language :arrow: knowledge that spoken language can be broken into component sounds + learn how sounds are symbolically represented by means of letters

There are two things necessary for reading an alphabetic language. But having one or even both of those conditions met tells us nothing. If we know we have the sufficient condition we can slide to the end of the arrow and we know the necessary condition(s) must also be true. But if we have the necessary conditions? The sufficient condition could be true but it doesn't have to be. That's why the arrow only goes from the sufficient to the necessary and not the other way around.

Answer choice (B) would be diagrammed this way ("When" is a sufficient indicator):

Learn how sounds are symbolically represented by means of letters :arrow: Read an alphabetic language

That relationship is backwards from the one in our stimulus. One necessary condition, both necessary conditions, it doesn't matter. Having the necessary condition(s) does not prove anything about the sufficient condition.

For further reading on Mistaken Reversals, check out this blog post: ... reasoning/

Hope this helps!


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