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On page 250 of the 2014 Logical Reasoning book, it states that there are two scenarios that lead to basic errors of causality. However on page 267, at the top of the page it states how those very two scenarios "tend to lead to causal conclusions in Logical Reasoning questions"
I do not understand why they state two different explanations for these basic causal scenarios?

Second, while doing the practice questions for this section, I was a bit confused on determining the causal statement since there was no phrase like the basic causal statements consist of. How do I determine if a stimulus consists of an advanced causal statement in both premises and conclusions? Do I apply the 4 different methods discussed in the book (probable/possible cause, partial and multi cause scenario...) ?
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 Dave Killoran
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Hi Kmikaeli,

In the case of your first question, it's because it gets boring if I simply repeat the same language over and over, so I tend to vary it a bit, and sometimes the slightly different phrasings will help unlock a key idea for certain students :-D In this chapter I make a big deal about how the error of causality is when it occurs in the conclusion, so when I say on page 267 that they lead to causal conclusions, that's the same as saying leads to causal errors.

The Advanced scenarios are advanced because the language they use lessens the force or introduces extra elements. In those instances, you again have to be a tracker: you have to watch for language that introduces these ideas. However, English has so many possible wordings that there are times when it isn't feasible to produce a basic list of indicators, because there are just too many to make it useful! And, as with our discussion about Weakening questions, you aren't applying anything here—you are recognizing when these situations occur (and Advanced causality occurs less frequently than Basic causality, so get Basic locked down first!). You can't apply something like a partial cause, you have to watch for statements that indicate that the cause under discussions is just one of several things that contribute to the effect.

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However, if for instance, a partial or multiple cause scenario occurs in a stimulus, I can correlate with advanced causal reasoning right?

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