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Please post below with any questions!
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I chose A...
I thought the structure is Most of X contains A and all of X contain either B or C, or both.
Thus, there are some of A that contain B and C.
Actually I thought this is not a flaw because it's the combination between All and Most statement so we can infer Some...
What makes A wrong and E correct?

 Nikki Siclunov
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Hi mokkyukkyu,

Technically, you are correct. The following combination of statements would indeed produce the inference you indicate:
  • A :most: B
    A :arrow: C
    B :some: C
The stimulus, however, is a bit more complex. Let's take a look:
  • Soil :most: Clay
    Soil :arrow: Sand or Organic Material
    Clay :some: Sand
    Clay :some: Organic Material
The conclusion is not logically valid. Do you see why? If soil always contained both sand and organic material, the conclusion would have been fine. However, apparently soil needs to contain one or the other (or both) of these materials. Since only one of the two necessary conditions needs to be satisfied, it's possible that no soil contains sand (if all soil contained organic material), and it's also possible that no soil contains organic material (if all soil contained sand). Thus, no conclusion can plausibly be drawn on the basis of the information presented.

To attack this Parallel Flaw question, use this insight to identify an answer choice that contains the same error in reasoning.

Hope this helps!

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Hi, I read the response above and seem to understand the problem better now but I just wanted to double check my reasoning for eliminating A. Is it because the last sentence is a conditional statement that never appears in the stimulus (if there are pharmacies that sell both cosmetics and toothpaste, there must also be some that sell both cosmetics and shampoo)? Thanks.
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Hi bli2016,

Exactly. That last sentence in A is a conditional statement that has no parallel in the original stimulus.
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I wasn't sure if I understand the flaw correctly.
If I draw the diagram,

Most kind of soil contain clay
Soil :most: clay

Every kind of soil contains either sand or organic material or both

Soil :some: sand
soil :some: organic material
soil :some: both

Combine with the first promise

sand :some: soil :most: clay (some soil contain both clay and sand)
organic material :some: soil :most: clay (some soil contain both clay and organic material)

It sounds logical for me. However, if we assume 80% of the soil has clay. Then, it is also possible that the rest 20% of the soil which doesn't contain clay contains sand. In other words, there is NO MUST some kinds of soil contain both clay and sand.

I don't know why my diagram will reach a different result as my percentage example. Is there anythig wrong with my diagram?
 Rachael Wilkenfeld
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Hi Chian

Saying that virtually every kind of soil contains sand or organic material or both does not mean that any soil contains sand. It could be that it's all organic material. Or it could be that all the soil contains sand, but none contains organic material. You can't break up the statement in the way you attempted.

Hope that helps.
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Hi Powerscore,

I understand why (E) is the correct anwser, but is the only reason that (D) is incorrect is because it fails to say "or both" at the end of its first premise (Virtually every pharmacy that sells shampoo also sells toothpaste).

I found that all other aspects of answer choice (D) line up very well with the stimulus and therefore ended up picking it. It also matched my paraphrase: Most A, Virtually every time B or C. Therefore there is A&B and A&C.

 Adam Tyson
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The first problem that should catch our attention with answer D, mshaheen14, is that the premise beginning with "virtually every" (the first sentence of the answer) does not match the "virtually every" premise in the stimulus. Using some very abstract language here, in the stimulus it was "virtually every X has Y or Z or both," but answer D's premise is structured as "virtually every X that has Y also has Z." It's about virtually all of the X's that have Y, rather than being about virtually all of the X's! To come back to the details, we needed an answer about virtually all pharmacies, not an answer about virtually all pharmacies that sell shampoo (adding a qualifying characteristic to the category). And then you're right, the premise fails to have any element of "or both" to it, which is the final nail in the coffin for this answer.

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