- Tue Jan 19, 2021 1:12 pm
The problem with that reading is the language of the passage doesn't really allow for it. When the passage describes the rising expectations theory at the beginning of paragraph three, the author says, "protest activity was a response to psychological tensions." So the author clearly envisions the "response" as the protest activity. The author refers to that same response when discussing the relative deprivation theory: "the impetus to protest is identified as gains achieved during the premovement period." If the "gains achieved" are the impetus, the "response to" (or effect of) that impetus is protest. So, under both theories, the effect (response to conditions) is protest. It's the causes (the motivations) that differ, which is described by answer choice D, when it mentions "the motivation of protesters," (i.e., what is driving them to protest). What's driving them to protest under rising expectations is the improvement in their condition (regardless of how that condition compared to others). What's driving them to protest under relative deprivation is the failure to improve relative to others (comparing their condition to the dominant group).
Let me know if that clears it up!