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LSAT Logical Reasoning Bible P.G 22 & 24 inquiries

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My name is Lexi Gibbs. I've currently begun studying for the LSAT this December. I am following PowerScores 6 month study plan. I've got the Bibles, the Workbooks and the Training books that were advised in the 6 month study plan. With that being said I am on Week 2. I have 2 very simple, quick questions I hope you can help me with (This will probably be the first of many simple, quick questions before December 2). With that being said, on page 22 of the Logical Reasoning Bible there is note to the left of the page which reads "Remember that words can be used in different ways. Thus, a word can appear on this list and not be used as a premise or conclusion indicator." My question is, we are given the list of Premise and Conclusion indicators and are told to be very familiar with them. When they appear on the LR questions how are we to decipher if they're being used as a premise or conclusion indicator when it states they may not be used? If we spot indicators in each LR question and recognize them from the list but they turn out to not be premise or conclusion indicators then we can potentially miss the question. Im curious how to determine the different between knowing they're indicators and knowing they're not.

Question 2 is in reference to page 24 there is a comment which states "premises and conclusions can be constructed without indicator words present." This also throws me for a loop because how are we to determine the premise and conclusion without indicator words? Are we to go with what we think sounds right? I am at a dilemma trying to figure out how to recognize these types of questions and how to solve them.

I hope you can help!

Thank you,

Lexi Gibbs
Dave Killoran
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Hi Lexi,

Thanks for the questions! The issue that every test taker encounters is that the English language is so malleable that creating ironclad rules is nearly impossible for the topic under discussion there. That said, those words typically work in the ways described, but as we will see later, there can be exceptions. This is one reason the LSAT is tough! But, the great thing about studying and preparing for this test is that you will begin to see how the test makers phrase ideas, and the usage of these ideas will become clearer. So, for now, with the indicator words, just make sure you know them, and watch how they are used in arguments because for the most part they work how they should.

When there is a lack of indicator words, it's more ominous sounding than it is in reality. On a daily basis, people make arguments to you that contain no indicator words, and you are able to interpret what is being said very easily. The LSAT makers don't always make it clear, but in those cases, context typically gives us hints about what is happening (same with the first question about when words are being used differently). At this point in the book it's too early to cover every variation, but I wanted to make clear early on that the LSAT isn't a rigid entity, and that the test makers will throw in unusual uses at times. Part of the challenge is navigating when that occurs. We'll see more of that as we get deeper into the book, so for now, just be aware that these things exist and keep an eye out for them.

Please let me know if that helps. Thanks!
Dave Killoran
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premises and conclusions can be constructed
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