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#3- Sheila: Health experts generally agree that smoking a

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Please post your questions below! Thanks!
ngreen221
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Hello PS,

I got this question right, pretty quickly in fact. I was wondering what the actual distinction is between answer choice A (the correct answer) and answer choice C? For me, the words "explicitly discounted" stuck out.

Thanks as always.

P.S. to Dave Killoran and Jon Denning, really enjoy the podcast! Keep it up!
Jay Donnell
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Hi ngreen!

Yep, you're right on that C lost its chance at contention with the reference to this chain smoking grandpa's situation being "explicitly discounted as an exception to the experts' conclusion." Tim attempted (and failed) to argue against a general agreement but not by running head first into any precise mention of this case being an exception to the rule.

Tim's poor attempt at a counterexample fails on a number of points. His one single case is insufficient to argue against an initial statement that only went as far as to claim that many years of smoking tobacco is "very likely to be harmful." That's where A hits the nail on the head with its mention of attempting to refute a "probabilistic conclusion." Tim's evidence is then surely insufficient to back up his overly strong conclusion that "smoking has no effect on health at all."

Keep up the good work, and keep it quick only if you keep it careful!

-Jay