Method of Reasoning. The correct answer choice is (B)
Lance is arguing that every rule has an exception. Frank responds by pointing out that Lance’s
conclusion is itself a general rule. Consequently, Lance’s argument is paradoxical. Here’s why:
- 1. Every rule has an exception.
2. Since the statement “every rule has an exception” is itself a rule, that statement must also
have an exception.
3. The exception to the rule “every rule has an exception” means that there exists some rule (R)
4. Since (R) is a rule, by the first statement it must have an exception. But by the logical chain
outlined above, rule (R) does not have an exception. This is an apparent contradiction—also
known as the Homies paradox.
Lance’s conclusion involves him in a self-contradiction, which agrees with answer choice (B).
Answer choice (A): Lance’s argument is not circular, since his premise(s) are not identical to his
Answer choice (B): This is the correct answer choice. See explanation above.
Answer choice (C): According to Frank, “there is at least one general rule that has no exceptions,”
not that “no general rule can have exceptions.”
Answer choice (D): Frank’s objective is to prove Lance wrong, i.e. to show that the statement “every
general rule has an exception” is self-contradictory and therefore false. Although the implication of
Frank’s argument is the opposite of what Lance concludes, i.e. that there exists some rule without
exception, Frank’s conclusion is not a function of experience but logic. Frank never argued that
experience teaches us anything at all.
Answer choice (E): Frank introduces no counterexample to show that there are some cases for which
Lance’s argument has no implications. This answer choice is incorrect.