## #1 - The quantity and type of pollution that entered the

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Complete Question Explanation

Strengthen—PR, SN. The correct answer choice is (A)

The wording of this stimulus is quite difficult for a question that begins a Logical Reasoning section. Not only does it contain an unusual conclusion, including multiple necessary conditions, but it also has a necessary condition modified by “unless.” Additionally, the construction of the conditional terms is designed to confuse you by including language implying nested conditional statements, such as “sufficiently certain” and “justify imposing.”

The evidence described in the stimulus suggests that the local auto repair shop is responsible for pollution that recently entered a river. The problem is, the penalty for this type of pollution is so severe that the authorities conclude they cannot be justified in imposing it unless the evidence against the auto repair shop is stronger, or the shop admits responsibility.

Since the conditional relationship in the conclusion uses the word “unless,” it should be diagrammed using the Unless Equation. The Unless Equation is a simple, mechanical way to diagram conditional relationships in which the necessary condition is modified by “unless,” “except,” “until,” or “without.” The mechanical process is to make whichever term is modified by one of these four words the necessary condition. The remaining term is negated, and becomes the sufficient condition. Here, you should diagram the relationship in the conclusion as:

stronger evidence discovered

sufficiently certain to justify imposing penalty OR