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#5 - Planetary bodies differ from one another in their

ivan
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Hello! Could you guys please explain me how to diagram this stimulus properly?
This is how I diagrammed it but I cannot create any inferences and prove correct and incorrect answers:

1) 1st sentence: Planetary bodies :most: solid surface
2) 2nd sentence: Solid surface AND Surface renewed :arrow: enough heat to cause volcanic action
3) 3rd sentence: Solid surface AND surface renewed :arrow: pockmarked by meteorite craters
4) 4rth sentence: Old planetary bodies :some: solid surface AND pockmarked by meteorite craters

I just cannot combine them and understand why E is correct and why other are incorrect

Thank you!
Jonathan Evans
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Hi, Ivan,

Great diagramming! Let's run through the answer choices to see what we can support.

A) We have no idea about the Moon's surface.

B) Does not specify that planetary body surface is solid.

C) Who knows.

D) Don't know anything about other moons of Jupiter. I hear Ganymede is nice.

E) You've already done the work. Now apply it! Do we have a very cold planetary body? Yes, Europa. What do we know about Europa? It is not pockmarked by craters. The "surface is renewed," so we know there's enough heat to generate volcanic action.

That's it, you found the answer! You just have to apply your work to the answers to find out what you can prove. Well done.
biskam
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How do we know in E that Europa has a surface that is renewed? Following the diagram's last statement re old planetary bodies, the variable SR (surface renewed) isn't included. Am I missing linkages?
AthenaDalton
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Hi biskam,

Thanks for your question! Here's a step-by-step of how we get to answer choice (E). For the sake of simplicity, I'm cutting out the terms about "solid surface" and "old planet" since we know Europa satisfies both conditions.

2nd sentence:
Surface renewed :arrow: enough heat to cause volcanic action

3rd sentence:
surface renewed :arrow: pockmarked by meteorite craters

Contrapositive 3rd sentence:
pockmarked :arrow: surface renewed

Combine sentence 2 and contrapostive of 3:
pockmarked :arrow: surface renewed :arrow: enough heat to cause volcanic action

4th sentence:
Europa :arrow: pockmarked by meteorite craters

Combine 4th sentence with previous inferences:
Europa :arrow: pockmarked :arrow: surface renewed :arrow: enough heat to cause volcanic action

Final inference Europa :arrow: enough heat to cause volcanic action

I hope that helps clarify things for you. Good luck studying!

Athena Dalton
biskam
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Thanks so much!! Should've done the contrapositive of the third statement.