Parallel Flaw. The correct answer choice is (B)
The reasoning of this stimulus is flawed because it makes some false assumptions. The reasoning is as follows:
- 1. Government spends more money on highway than antismoking
2. Smoking kills more people each year
This reasoning is flawed because it assumes that:
- 1. Spending more on antismoking would actually save lives, and
2. Shifting money away from highways would not lead to such an increase in highway deaths that it outweighs any lives saved from a better antismoking campaign
Again, this represents flawed reasoning.
Answer choice (A): This answer choice is fairly similar to the stimulus' reasoning, although there are some important differences:
- 1. Government enforces speed limit more closely on freeways than tollways
2. Freeways accidents kill more people each year
Thus, Government would save lives by shifting funds from freeways to tollways.
This answer choice is incorrect for three reasons. First of all, it contains the same subject as the stimulus (government spending, saving lives, highway). Secondly, to correctly parallel the reasoning in the stimulus, premise 2 of this answer choice should state "Tollways accidents kill more people each year" instead — otherwise, why would we even consider shifting funds away from freeways? Finally, the conclusion also does not correctly parallel that of the stimulus: the stimulus states that since it is spending more money on highways than antismoking, the government should shift some funds from highways to antismoking. To parallel that, this answer choice should say that since the government is enforcing the spend limit more closely on freeways than tollways, it should shift some of its attention/resources to enforce the speed limit more closely on tollways instead, and not funds since this answer choice was never talking about spending money.
Answer choice (B): This is the correct answer choice. It parallels every part of the stimulus:
- 1. Musician spends more time on guitar than saxophone
2. Saxophone brings in more performances
Thus, shifting time from guitar to saxophone would bring in more performances
It is a flawed reasoning because it incorrectly assumes that:
- 1. Spending more time on saxophone would actually have positive results (perhaps she is at a stage where she would not really benefit from any extra practice)
2. Spending less time on the guitar would not lead to such a decrease in guitar playing engagements that it outweighs any increase in saxophone playing engagements there might be
Each part of this argument, as well as the flawed assumptions and the conclusion, parallels the stimulus correctly, this it is the credited answer.
Answer choice (C): This answer does not parallel the stimulus. It does not set up the situation as the stimulus does. To correctly parallel the stimulus, the argument should begin with "______ (somebody) drives on residential streets much more than on highways". The first line of the answer choice also contains information that is irrelevant to the argument, and does not properly parallel the stimulus' reasoning.
Answer choice (D): This answer choice is tempting because it matches the parts of the stimulus' reasoning except for one small bit. The reasoning of this answer choice is that:
- 1. Swim team spends more time on backstroke than breaststroke
2. Breaststroke's lap times are much better
Thus, swim team would win more swim meets by shifting practice time from backstroke to breaststroke
The conclusion of this answer choice, however, makes an extra assumption that if the lap times are better, then the swim team would win more swim meets, which the original stimulus did not make. Thus this is an incorrect answer. To properly parallel the stimulus, the conclusion of (D) should state:
Therefore, swim team would have much better lap times by shifting practice time from backstroke to breaststroke
Answer choice (E): Like C, this answer choice does not set up the situation as the stimulus does. The last two lines of this argument states that:
- Borrowers borrow larger sums at low rates
Thus, banks would be more profitable shifting loans from high rates to low rates
As we can see, then, in order for the first line to parallel the stimulus properly, it should state that "The bank is currently offering more loans at high rates than low rates". The first line of the answer choice, as it is, does not parallel the stimulus correctly.