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#15 - Ashley: Words like "of" and "upon," unlike "pencil"

Arindom
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Hi,

I chose ans choice B for this because doesn't Joshua assume that words that are not useful are meaningless? Why is ans. choice A correct here? What is the best way to approach these questions.

Thanks.

- Arindom
Robert Carroll
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Arindom,

Ashley said that those words do not refer to anything. Joshua claims that the words are therefore meaningless. Thus, Joshua claims:

word refers to a thing :arrow: word has meaning

Otherwise, he would not have taken its not referring to a thing to indicate that it lacks meaning.

Thus:

word has meaning :arrow: word refers to a thing

Answer choice (A) says this.

Joshua does not claim that words that are not useful are meaningless. Neither person discusses whether words are useful; Ashley discusses whether words refer to things.

This is a Must Be True question based on Joshua's claim. Joshua says "Since such words are meaningless," so he is saying that "such words" as Ashley has described (not referring to things) are meaningless. Stick to the Fact Test.

Robert Carroll
chian9010
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Robert Carroll wrote:Arindom,

Ashley said that those words do not refer to anything. Joshua claims that the words are therefore meaningless. Thus, Joshua claims:

word refers to a thing :arrow: word has meaning

Otherwise, he would not have taken its not referring to a thing to indicate that it lacks meaning.

Thus:

word has meaning :arrow: word refers to a thing

Answer choice (A) says this.

Joshua does not claim that words that are not useful are meaningless. Neither person discusses whether words are useful; Ashley discusses whether words refer to things.

This is a Must Be True question based on Joshua's claim. Joshua says "Since such words are meaningless," so he is saying that "such words" as Ashley has described (not referring to things) are meaningless. Stick to the Fact Test.

Robert Carroll



When I diagram the question, I draw something like the following:

No R (Do not refer to anything) :arrow: Meaningless

Therefore, the contropositive should be

Meaning :arrow: Referring to something

However, if we diagram A, it becomes

Referring to something :arrow: meaning (This is exactly the mistaken reversal of what we just diagrammed. Therefore, I am not sure why it is the correct.

In addition, could anyone please illustrate what's the difference between A and C? How to diagram C?
Robert Carroll
PowerScore Staff
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chian,

You have answer choice (A) misdiagrammed. It says that "only words that refer have meaning." The necessary condition is "words that refer." Thus, you have the Mistaken Reversal of answer choice (A), not what it itself says. The correct diagram should be:

word has meaning :arrow: word refers

Answer choice (C) is the Mistaken Reversal of answer choice (A), and since (as demonstrated) answer choice (A) is correct, that makes (C):

word refers :arrow: word has meaning

Robert Carroll