Flaw in the Reasoning. The correct answer choice is (E)
The “New Age philosopher” in this stimulus presents a sophisticated-sounding argument whose flaw becomes clear when the philosopher’s logic is simplified:
- Premise: Nature evolves organically, holistically, and non-linearly.
Conclusion: Thus nature is best understood through reasoning that is organic, holistic, and non-linear.
Without justification, the philosopher assumes that because nature has those attributes, the best understanding of nature would come from a style of reasoning with those attributes. This is the flaw in the argument.
Answer choice (A): This answer choice presents the conditional flaw of mistaking a necessary condition for a sufficient condition. Since this is not the flaw found in the philosopher’s argument, this answer choice is incorrect.
Answer choice (B): The stimulus does not reference the overall structure, but rather three specific attributes, so this cannot be the correct answer choice.
Answer choice (C): This distinction is not required by the argument, so the failure to make this distinction is not a flaw.
Answer choice (D): There is no effort made by the politician to see the interconnected as separate, so this cannot be the flaw inherent in the philosopher’s argument.
Answer choice (E): This is the correct answer choice. The philosopher assumes, without justification, that the best way to understand nature is with reasoning that displays common attributes.