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I am confused about why the answer is A and not C. I thought that the passage mentioned the drought as an opposing point to Wheeler's theory.
Jay Donnell
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Hi Knutson!

This is a bit of tricky Must Be True—Concept Reference question, so I'm happy to help clear it up!

I first want to address that the correct response is actually B, not A, but I can see the tempting nature of answer choice C so I want to explain its inaccuracy.

The question asks for what evidence 'directly counters Wheeler's theory,' with his theory pointing to 'a final massacre by
marauding Indo-Aryan invaders.' In order to directly counter such a theory, we would have to be able to prove that the battle/massacre could not have taken place. Not only does the author present the claim that 'there is no archaeological
evidence of battles within the cities,' they also mention that excavations prove that the Indo-Aryans were not even there at the time of the alleged battle.

Answer choice B references the above counter-evidence, which directly argues against the battle/massacre being an accurate theory for the demise of the civilization.

The passage does go on to mention the drought, but in answering this question precisely, the fact that a drought was known to exist doesn't directly counter the theory regarding a massive battle. That's a tricky issue as the drought and other environmental factors (like an earthquake) are listed as possible reasons for the civilization to relocate, but they don't directly argue against the massacre theory as well as does the evidence listed in the correct response of B.

I hope that helps to clear it up!